There are numerous commercially available nutritional supplements that are targeted to athletes and health enthusiasts that allegedly possess antioxidant properties.
However, most of these compounds are poorly investigated with respect to their in vivo redox activity and efficacy in humans. Therefore, this review will firstly provide a background to endurance exercise-related redox signalling and the subsequent adaptations in skeletal muscle and vascular function.
The review will then discuss commonly available compounds with purported antioxidant effects for use by athletes. However, evidence on their effects on endurance performance are either lacking or not supportive.
- Dunstan et al.
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- La scala RPE Rate of Perceived Exertion è una linea guida per risalire indicativamente all'intensità dell'esercizio senza metodi di misurazione, ma rilevando la sola percezione soggettiva dello sforzo fisico .
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Finally, additional research should clarify the potential benefits of curcumin in improving muscle recovery post intensive exercise; and the potential hampering effects of astaxanthin, selenium and vitamin A on skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training. Overall, we highlight the lack of supportive evidence for most antioxidant compounds to recommend to athletes.
Introduction Hiit fat loss pubmed exercise and muscle contraction increase production of reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS and promote oxidative stress in skeletal muscle [  ]. Excessive Hiit fat loss pubmed levels are deleterious to cells [ 910 ] through increased damage and modifications to cellular proteins, lipids and DNA [ 11 ].
Moreover, elevated ROS levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease [  ] and type 2 diabetes [ 15 ]. On the other hand, emerging evidence shows that several ROS and RNS produced in physiological amounts are important signalling molecules, acting through mechanisms such as post-translational redox modifications of cysteine thiols on proteins [ 1617 ].
Recent research has highlighted the importance of redox signalling in physiological processes, including normal molecular and cellular responses to exercise [ 10 ].
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In particular, redox-signalling pathways have been implicated in the acute and chronic responses of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise, including skeletal muscle glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity [ 1819 ]; induction of endogenous antioxidant hiit fat loss pubmed [ 62021 ]; mitochondrial biogenesis [  ]; and muscle contraction force [  ].
There is also growing evidence of redox regulation of vascular function, with relevance to exercise and its adaptations that require further examination [  ]. Acute and chronic endurance exercise tends to increase expression and activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle [ 62021 ], in turn enabling an improved capacity to moderate adverse effects of ROS. To enhance the capacity of skeletal muscle to neutralize ROS produced during exercise, athletes regularly consume exogenous antioxidant supplements [ 3435 ].
Benefits of antioxidant supplements might relate to an improvement in cellular redox state and decreased oxidative modifications to DNA, lipids and proteins.
Some evidence shows an ameliorating effect of antioxidants on muscle recovery following intense muscle-damaging exercise [  ]. ROS have also been implicated in premature muscular fatigue during sustained muscle contraction and exercise [  ]. Therefore, the use of exogenous antioxidants might help to delay muscular fatigue and improve endurance exercise performance.
Antioxidant supplements and endurance exercise: Current evidence and mechanistic insights
Despite the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation in exercising humans, growing research has implicated hampering effects of exogenous antioxidant supplementation on some acute and chronic responses of skeletal muscle to exercise [ 2224264344 ]. These impairments in adaptive changes within skeletal muscle are presumably a result of an attenuation of normal redox-signalling pathways in muscle by antioxidants [ 10 ].
In particular, antioxidant supplementation has been found in some studies to impair adaptive responses to endurance exercise training [ 244344 ]. There are numerous compounds with purported antioxidant properties that are available commercially over the counter or via online vendors for athletes and other health consumers.
However, for many of these compounds, there is a lack a critical evaluation of their efficacy and benefits. Thus, there is a need to further evaluate the current evidence on potential benefits and risks of these compounds for athletes. The present review aims to firstly discuss endurance exercise-related skeletal muscle redox signalling, with key focus areas of a sites of ROS production and their temporal changes with respect to exercise; and b mechanisms of ROS as hiit fat loss pubmed signal in skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise, including adaptations such as mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant enzyme induction and vascular functional changes.
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The second half of the review will focus on current evidence on effects of commercially available compounds with purported antioxidant effects on oxidative stress, endurance exercise-related outcomes and muscle recovery post exercise. Where possible, we have focussed on evidence arising from studies using healthy human participants given the potential applicability of such findings to human athletic endeavours.
Moreover, we have focussed, where possible, on effects that are specific to skeletal muscle. Endurance exercise and skeletal muscle redox signalling 2.
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Transient and reversible post translational chemical modifications of reactive cysteine thiol residues on proteins through processes such as S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, sulfenylation and disulphide formation are important redox modifications through which cells respond to altered hiit fat loss pubmed of ROS and RNS [ 172746 ].
For instance, protein S-nitrosylation can promote cellular effects such as altered regulation of enzyme activities, altered receptor and transporter activities, altered gene transcription and translation, and protein-protein interactions [ 47 ]. S-glutathionylation of a protein can result in its activation hiit fat loss pubmed deactivation, which may be important in the regulation of cell signalling mediators [ 1748 ].
Post-translational redox modifications such as S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation may play important molecular signalling roles in skeletal muscle given their intricate associations with key proteins linked to muscle contraction and exercise adaptations [  ].
Antioxidants can regulate thiol redox state and therefore regulate redox signalling pathways [ 66 ]. Endogenous antioxidants, which include enzymes and small molecules such as thioredoxins Trxsulfiredoxins Srxglutathione reductases GRperoxiredoxins Prdx and glutathione GSH are fundamental to the control of redox signalling networks [ 67 ].
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Additionally, exogenous compounds with antioxidant properties such as polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E that are consumed either in the diet or as dietary supplements may also participate in and interact with these redox signalling networks. Sites of ROS production before, during and post endurance exercise Total intracellular ROS levels reflect the net rates of formation and removal across numerous individual subcellular sites.
In the context of physiological stressors such as exercise, these have most often hiit fat loss pubmed studied under defined steady state bioenergetic conditions, i.
The following section not only summarises the known sites of ROS formation and removal under these conditions, but also focusses on the dynamic temporal shifts in site-specific ROS generation and removal that occur during the transition periods between steady state bioenergetic situations. Specifically, these are the transitions from i rest to work, ii work to rest, and iii the early post-exercise recovery period.